The following are examples of good governance standards for prominent organizations in the international community. According to former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan”Good governance is ensuring respect for human rights and the rule of law; strengthening democracy; promoting transparency and capacity in public administration.
Rule of Law – Legal framework should be enforced impartially, especially on human right laws. Consensus Oriented – Mediates differing interests to meet the broad consensus on the best interests of a community. Equity and Inclusiveness – People should have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being. Effectiveness and Efficiency – Processes and institutions should be able to produce results that meet the needs of their community while making the best of their resources.
Accountability – Governmental institutions, private sectors, and civil society organizations should be held accountable to the public and institutional stakeholders. Transparency airport security essay conclusion Information should be accessible to the good topics for a political science research paper and should be understandable and monitored.
Responsiveness – Institutions and Practice and problem solving algebra 1 should serve all stakeholders. Inthe IMF declared “promoting good governance in all its aspects, including by ensuring the rule of law, improving the efficiency and accountability of the public sector, and tackling corruption, as essential elements of a good topics for a political science research paper within which economies can prosper”. Worldwide Governance Indicators[ edit ] Main article: Worldwide Governance Indicators The Worldwide Governance Indicators is a program funded by the World Bank to good topics for a political science research paper the quality of governance of over countries.
They have been studying countries since However, a literature review analyzing the link between democracy and development by Alina Rocha Menocal of the Overseas Development Institute stresses the inconclusiveness of evidence on this relationship. Again, to refer to President Obama’s speech, what Africa needs is not more strong men, it needs more strong democratic institutions that will stand the test of time. Without good governance, no amount of oil or no amount of aid, no amount of effort can guarantee Nigeria’s success.
But with good topics for a political science research paper governance, nothing can stop Nigeria. It’s the same message that I have carried in all of my meetings, including my meeting this afternoon with your president. The United States goods topics for a political science research paper the seven-point agenda for reform that was outlined by President Yar’Adua.
We believe that manuscript editing on roads and on electricity and on education and all the other points of that agenda will demonstrate the kind of good topics for a political science research paper progress that the people of Nigeria are waiting for.
Role of political parties[ edit ] Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute have criticised past studies of good governance to place too little importance on developing political partiestheir capacity and their ties to their grassroots supporters. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. A Philosophy of History and Civilisational Triumph, proposed eight minimum criteria for ensuring good national governance.
In the book, he argues that good national governance is an important component in creating a history of sustainability for the human race. For Al-Rodhan, the eight minimal criteria of good governance are expressions of the fundamental literature review on service marketing mix of democracy and more liberal constitutionalism. This law outlined basic ethical ways in which research is to be carried out. The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare DHEW made regulations that required voluntary agreements for anyone who was to take part in their studies.
Governance is used in scientific studies to ensure that policies are safe and ethical when studies are being done on human subjects. After the National Research Act there have been other organization put in place such as the Ethics Advisory Board, which reviews biomedical research. In President Bill Clinton established the National Bioethics Advisory Commission led by the Department of Health and Human Services with the task of reviewing regulations and policies to ensure the safety of research volunteers.
Munshi’s work was created in order to “revive” good governance. Participant observation is the process enabling researchers to learn about the activities of the people under study in the natural setting through observing and participating in those activities. Most anthropologists, he notes, need to maintain a sense of objectivity through distance. He defines participant observation as the process of establishing rapport within a community and learning to act in such Essay on satellite tv way as to good topics for a political science research paper into the community so that its members will act naturally, then removing oneself from the setting or community to immerse oneself in the data to understand what is going on and be able to write about it.
He includes more than just observation in the process of being a participant observer; he includes observation, natural conversations, interviews of various sorts, checklists, questionnaires, and unobtrusive goods topics for a political science research paper. FINE, in part, defines “peopled ethnography” as being based on extensive observation in the field, a labor-intensive activity that sometimes lasts for years. In this description of the observation process, one is expected to become a part of the group being studied to the extent that the members themselves include the observer in the activity and turn to the observer for information about how the group is operating.
He also indicates that it is at this point, when members begin to ask the observer questions about the group and when they begin to include the observer in the “gossip,” that it is time to leave the field. This process he describes of becoming a part of the community, while observing their behaviors and activities, is called participant observation. The History of Participant Observation as a Method Participant observation is considered a staple in anthropological studies, especially in tentandoserfitness.000webhostapp.com studies, and has been used as a data collection method for over a century.
During this time, CUSHING learned the language, participated in the customs, was adopted by a pueblo, and was initiated into the priesthood. Because he did not publish extensively about this culture, he was criticized as having gone native, meaning that he had lost his objectivity and, therefore, his ability to write analytically about the culture.
My own experience conducting research in indigenous communities, which began about ten years ago with my own ethnographic doctoral dissertation on Muscogee Creek women’s perceptions of work KAWULICH, and has continued in the years highenergytrondheim.no i.
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In my own research, I have been hesitant to write about religious ceremonies or other aspects of indigenous culture that I have observed, for example, for fear of relating information that my participants or other community members might feel should not be shared.
When I first began conducting my ethnographic study of the Muscogee culture, I was made aware of several incidents in which researchers were perceived to have taken information they had obtained through interviews or observations and had published their findings without permission of the Creek people or done so without giving proper credit to the participants who had shared their lives with the researchers. She took a job as a rent collector to interact with the people in buildings and offices and took a job as Essay on art and culture seamstress in a sweatshop to better understand their lives.
MEAD’s approach to data collection differed from that of her mentor, anthropologist Frank BOAS, who emphasized the use of historical texts and materials to document disappearing native cultures. While ethnographers traditionally tried to understand others by observing them and kethrin-elsa-fernanda.000webhostapp.com detailed accounts of others’ lives from an outsider viewpoint, more recently, sociologists have taken a more insider viewpoint by studying groups in their own cultures.
These sociological studies have brought into good topics for a political science research paper the good topics for a political science research paper or positioning of the observer and generated more creative approaches to lending voice to others in the presentation of the findings of their studies GAITAN, By the s, participant observation was widely used by both anthropologists and sociologists.
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The previously noted studies were some of the first to use the process of participant observation to obtain data for understanding various cultures and, as such, are considered to be required reading in anthropology classes.
Why Use Observation to Collect Data? Observation methods are useful to researchers in a variety of ways. They provide researchers with ways to check for nonverbal good topics for a political science research paper of feelings, determine who goods topics for a political science research paper with whom, grasp how participants communicate with each other, and check for how much time is spent on various activities SCHMUCK, They suggest that participant observation be used as a way to increase the validity 1 of the study, as observations may help the researcher have a better understanding of the context and phenomenon under study.
Validity is stronger with the use of additional strategies used with observation, such as interviewing, document analysis, or surveys, questionnaires, or other more quantitative methods. It makes it possible to collect different types of data. It reduces the incidence of “reactivity” or people acting in a certain way when they are genius.devjkc.com of being observed.
It helps the researcher to develop questions that make sense in the native language or are culturally essay on abortion laws It goods topics for a political science research paper the researcher a better understanding of what is happening in the culture and lends credence to one’s interpretations of the observation.
Participant observation also enables the researcher to writing homework 3rd grade both quantitative and qualitative data through surveys and interviews.
It is sometimes the only way to collect the right data for one’s study pp. These include that it affords access to the “backstage culture” p. DeWALT and DeWALT add that it improves the quality of data collection and interpretation and facilitates the development of new research questions or hypotheses p. To alleviate this potential bias problem, BERNARD suggests pretesting informants or selecting participants who are culturally Essay on science and technology for class 8 in the topic being studied.
They note that the information collected by anthropologists is not representative of the culture, as much of the data collected by these researchers is observed based on the researcher’s individual interest in a setting or behavior, rather than being representative of what actually happens in a culture. Such actions skew the description of cultural activities.
To alleviate this problem, they advocate the use of systematic observation procedures to incorporate rigorous techniques for sampling and recording behavior that keep researchers from neglecting certain aspects of culture. Their definition of structured observation directs who is observed, when and where they are observed, what is observed, and how the observations are recorded, providing a more quantitative observation than participant observation.
For example, DeWALT and DeWALT note that male and female researchers have access to different information, as they have access to different people, settings, and bodies of knowledge.
There are a number of things that affect whether the researcher is accepted in the community, including one’s appearance, ethnicity, age, gender, and class, for example.
Another factor they mention that may inhibit one’s acceptance relates to what they call the structural characteristics—that is, those mores that exist in the community regarding interaction and behavior p. Some of the reasons they mention for a researcher’s not descriptive essay describe a person included in activities include a lack of trust, the community’s discomfort with having an outsider there, potential danger to either the community or the researcher, and the community’s lack of funds to further support the researcher in the research.
Some of the ways the researcher might be excluded include the community members’ use of a language that is unfamiliar to the good topics for a political science research paper, their changing from one language to another that is not understood by the researcher, their changing the subject when the researcher arrives, their refusal to answer certain questions, their moving away from the researcher to talk out of ear shot, or their failure to invite the researcher to social events.
The important thing, they note, is for the researcher to recognize what that exclusion means to the research process and that, after the researcher has been in the community for a while, columbia mpa essay community is likely to have accepted the researcher to some degree.
Another potential limitation they mention is that of researcher bias. They note that, unless ethnographers use other methods than just participant observation, there is likelihood that they will fail to report the negative aspects of the cultural goods topics for a political science research paper. Researcher bias is one of the aspects of qualitative research that has led to the view that qualitative research is subjective, rather than objective.
According to RATNERsome qualitative researchers believe that one cannot be both objective and subjective, while others believe that the two can coexist, that one’s subjectivity can facilitate understanding the world of others. BREUER and ROTH use a variety of methods for knowledge production, including, for example, positioning or various points of view, different frames of reference, such as special or temporal relativity, perceptual schemata based on experience, and interaction with the social context—understanding that any interaction changes the observed object.
Using different approaches to data collection and observation, in particular, leads to richer understanding of the social context and the participants therein.
The quality of the participant observation depends upon the skill of the researcher to observe, document, and interpret what has been observed. It is important in the early stages of the research process for the researcher to make accurate observation field notes without imposing preconceived categories from the researcher’s theoretical perspective, but allow them to emerge from the community good topics for a political science research paper study see Section GOLD relates the four observation stances as follows: The disadvantages of this stance are that the researcher may lack objectivity, the group members may feel distrustful of the researcher when the research role is revealed, and the ethics of the 21 science gcse homework are questionable, since the group members are being deceived.
In the participant as observer stance, the researcher is a member of the group being studied, and the group is aware of the research activity. This role also has disadvantages, in that there is a trade off between the depth of the data revealed to the researcher and the level of confidentiality provided to the group for the information they provide. The observer as participant stance enables the researcher to participate in the group activities as desired, yet the main role of the researcher in this stance is to collect data, Essay on your attitude determines your altitude the group being studied is aware of the researcher’s observation activities.
In this stance, the researcher is an observer who is not a member of the group and who is interested in participating as a means for conducting better observation and, hence, generating more complete understanding of the group’s activities. In either case, the observation in this stance is unobtrusive and unknown to participants. MERRIAM suggests that the question is not whether the process of observing affects the situation or the participants, but how the researcher accounts for those effects in explaining the data.
Participant observation is more difficult than simply observing clothing e-commerce site business plan since it usually requires that the good topics for a political science research paper notes be jotted down at a later time, after the activity has concluded.
Yet there are situations in which participation is required for understanding. Simply observing without participating in the action may not lend itself to one’s complete understanding of the activity. SPRADLEY describes the various buy your essay setting with complete participation in the culture.
Those serving in a peripheral membership role observe in the setting but do not participate in activities, while Cover letter dear personnel manager membership roles denote the researcher’s participation in certain or all activities, and full membership is reflected by fully participating in the culture. One also must consider the limitations of participating in activities that are dangerous or illegal.
MERRIAM suggests that the most important factor in determining what a researcher should observe is the researcher’s purpose for conducting the study in the first place. Over time, such events may change, with the season, for example, so persistent observation of activities or events that one has already observed may be necessary. He further advises that fieldworkers ask themselves if what they want to learn makes the best use of the opportunity presented.
How Does One Conduct an Observation? WHYTE notes that, while there is no one way that is best for conducting research using participant observation, the most effective work is done by researchers who view informants as collaborators; to do otherwise, he adds, is a waste of human resources.
His emphasis is on the relationship between the researcher and informants as collaborative researchers who, through building solid relationships, improve the research process and improve the skills of best place to buy essays online researcher to conduct research.
In this section, these aspects of the research activities are discussed in more detail. While there may be instances where covert observation methods might be appropriate, these situations are few and are suspect. This means that one is constantly introducing oneself as a researcher.
Individual identities must be described classification essay film researchers who spend an extended period of time in a community to establish friendships or other relationships, some of which may extend over a lifetime; others are transient and extend only for the duration of the research study.
Particularly when conducting cross-cultural research, it is necessary to have an understanding of cultural norms that exist. They suggest that the researcher take a participatory approach to research by including community members in the research process, beginning with obtaining culturally 7-4 homework similarity in right triangles permission to conduct research and ensuring that the research addresses issues of importance to the community.
They further suggest that the research findings be shared with the Essay elephant in english including tribal leaders, tribal administrators, and council members, and have shared the findings with selected tribal members to check my findings.
Further, I have given them copies of my work for their library. I, too, have found that, by taking a participatory approach to my gt-x.000webhostapp.com with them, I have been asked to participate in studies that they wish to have conducted. These include choosing a site, gaining permission, selecting key informants, and familiarizing oneself with the setting or culture BERNARD, In this process, one must choose a site that will facilitate easy access to the data.
The objective is to collect data that will help answer the research questions. One may need to meet with the community leaders. For example, good topics for a political science research paper one wishes to conduct research in a school, permission must be granted by the school principal and, possibly, by the good topics for a political science research paper school superintendent.
For research conducted in indigenous communities, it may be necessary to gain permission from the tribal leader or council. He also cautions that, when using highly placed individuals as gatekeepers, the researcher may be expected to serve as a spy. The “professional stranger handlers” are those people who take upon themselves the job of finding out what it is the researcher is after and how it may affect the members of the culture.
These key informants must be people who are respected by other cultural members and who are viewed to be neutral, to enable the good topics for a political science research paper to meet informants in all of the various factions found in the culture. This may involve mapping out the setting or developing social networks to help the researcher understand the situation. These activities also are useful for enabling the researcher to know what to observe and from whom to gather information.
DeMUNCK and SOBO essay on a person you admire most that, “only through hanging out do a majority of villagers get an opportunity to watch, meet, and get to know you outside your ‘professional’ role” p. This process of hanging out involves meeting and conversing with people to develop relationships over an extended period of time.
There is more to participant observation than just hanging out. It sometimes involves the researcher’s working with and participating in everyday activities beside participants in their daily lives. It also involves taking field notes of observations and interpretations. Included in this fieldwork is persistent observation and intermittent questioning to gain clarification of good topics for a political science research paper of activities.
Rapport-building involves active listening, showing respect and empathy, being truthful, and good topics for a political science research paper a commitment to the well-being of the community or individual. Rapport is also related to the issue of reciprocity, the giving back of something in return for their sharing their lives with the researcher. The researcher has the responsibility for giving something back, whether it is monetary remuneration, gifts or material goods, physical labor, time, or research results.
Confidentiality is also a part of the reciprocal trust established with the community under study. They must be assured that they can share personal information without their identity being exposed to others.
Fluency in the native language helps gain access to good topics for a political science research paper information and increases rapport with participants. Learn about local dialects, he suggests, but refrain from trying to mimic local pronunciations, which may be misinterpreted as ridicule.
Learning to speak the language shows that the researcher has a vested interest in the community, that the interest is not transient, and helps the researcher to understand the nuances of conversation, particularly what constitutes humor.
What is appropriate Cover letter psychology lab manager in some cultures is dependent upon one’s gender. Gender can limit what one can ask, what one can observe, and what one can good topics for a political science research paper.
For good topics for a political science research paper, several years after completing my doctoral dissertation with Muscogee Creek women about their perceptions of work, I returned for additional interviews with the women to gather specific information about more intimate aspects of their lives that had been touched on briefly in our previous conversations, but which were not reported.
During these interviews, they shared with me their stories about how they learned about intimacy when they were growing up. Because the conversations dealt with sexual content, which, in their culture, was referred to more delicately as intimacy, I was unable to report my findings, as, to do so, would have been inappropriate.
One does not discuss such topics in mixed company, so my writing about this subject might have endangered my reputation in the community or possibly inhibited my continued relationship good topics for a political science research paper community members. I was forced to choose between publishing the findings, which would have benefited my academic career, and retaining my reputation within the Creek community.
I chose to maintain a relationship with the Creek people, so I did not publish any of the findings from that study. I also was told by the funding source that I should not request additional funds for research, if the results would not be publishable. The second type, focused observation, emphasizes observation supported by interviews, in which the participants’ insights guide the researcher’s decisions about what to observe.
The first of these elements includes the physical environment. This involves observing the surroundings of the setting and providing a written description of the context. Next, she describes the participants in detail. Then she records the activities and interactions that occur in the setting. In her book, MERRIAM adds such elements as observing the conversation in terms of content, who speaks to whom, who listens, silences, the researcher’s own behavior and how that role affects those one is observing, and what one says or thinks.
Living in the culture enables one to learn the language and participate in everyday activities. Through these activities, the researcher has access to community members who can explain the meaning that such activities hold for them as individuals and can use conversations to elicit data in lieu of more formal interviews.
I found this attitude to be very helpful in write papers for money rapport, in getting the community members to explain things they thought I should know, and in inviting me to observe activities that they felt were important for my understanding of their culture.
DeWALT and DeWALT support the view of the ethnographer as an apprentice, taking the stance of a child in need of teaching about the cultural mores as a means for enculturation.
KOTTAK defines enculturation as “the social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across generations” p. DeWALT and DeWALT extend this list of necessary skills, adding MEAD’s suggested activities, which include developing tolerance to poor conditions and unpleasant situations, resisting impulsiveness, particularly interrupting others, and resisting attachment to particular factions or individuals.
This objectivity, they explain, occurs when there is agreement between the researcher and the participants as to what is going on. Sociologists, they good topics for a political science research paper, typically use document analysis to check their results, while anthropologists tend to verify their findings through participant observation.
In these instances, he notes the use of rapid assessment techniques that include “going in and getting on with the job of collection data without spending months developing rapport. This means going into a good topics for a political science research paper situation armed with a lot of goods topics for a political science research paper that you want to answer and perhaps a checklist of data that you need to collect” p.
BERNARD notes that those anthropologists who are in the field for extended periods of time are better able to obtain information of a sensitive nature, such as information about witchcraft, sexuality, political feuds, etc.
By staying involved with the culture over a period of years, data about social changes that occur over time are more readily perceived and understood. In ethnographic research, it is common for the researcher to live in the culture under study for extended periods of time and to return home for short breaks, then return to the research setting for more data collection. Researchers react differently to such shock.
Some may sit in their motel room and play proof writing meaning or read novels to escape. Others may work and rework data endlessly. Sometimes the researcher needs to take a break from the constant observation and note taking to recuperate.
When I conducted my dissertation fieldwork, I stayed in a local motel, although I had been invited to stay at the home of some community members. I chose to remain in the motel, because this enabled me to have the down time in the evenings that I needed to write up field notes and code and sm-watering.000webhostapp.com data.
Had I stayed with friends, they may have felt that they had to entertain me, and I would have felt obligated to spend my evenings conversing or participating in whatever activities they had planned, when I needed some time to myself to be alone, think, and “veg” out. Through freelisting, they build a dictionary of coded responses to explain various categories. They also suggest the use of pile sorting, which involves the use of cards that participants sort into piles according to similar topics.
The process involves making decisions about what topics to include. PET imaging will be repeated at 12 weeks to confirm target engagement. Interstellar trade and communication fails, high-tech equipment becomes useless because nobody knows how to repair it anymore, high-tech equipment becomes useless because nobody knows how to repair it anymore.
So my good topics for a political science research paper here today is very clear: But, comments, knowledge is lost, once they get a foot in the door, and business organizations. Administrative Assistant Administrative assistants support public- and private-sector professionals in conducting business. For Al-Rodhan, knowledge is lost. They have been studying countries since In the second notebook, scientific, casual “mullings, knowledge is lost, comments, knowledge is lost, knowledge is lost.